2 risers plus 1 tread must equal a minimum of 24" and a maximum of 25" when added together. Jun 10, 2016 - I am looking for information on the minimum stairway tread depth. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the nosings of adjacent treads. It doesn’t matter if it’s summer, winter or all-season tires — the remaining tread depth is extremely important. Nosings must be a minimum of 3/4″ to a maximum of 1-1/4”. For safety and code compliance, the riser height and tread depth must be consistent along the whole stair. It may be squared, slightly rounded or beveled at the edges, or fully rounded or bullnose. Easy glue down installation. Have a minimum headroom above spiral stair treads of at least 6 feet, 6 inches (2 m), measured from the leading edge of the tread; 1910.25(d)(4) Have a minimum tread depth … Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and smallest tread shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs.The greatest winder tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). 1 … Stair slope of either 56 or 68 degrees requires a smaller overall … Building codes frequently view indoor and outdoor stairs as one and the same. Alternating Tread Stairs provide the same space saving benefit but more than twice the usable tread depth as a ships ladder or ship stair. © So, if you start with a new tire tread depth of 10/32", the actual usable tread depth is 8/32". You … Stair landings at least 20 inches (50.8 cm) in depth… I had to change the value in "actual tread depth" properties of the overall multistory stair to something different than the 11". If the minimum tread depth required by regs is 22 cm (8 21/32 inch), and 12 steps are required to go from the floor to the top of the stairs, multiply the minimum tread depth permitted by regs by the number of steps required by : 22 cm x 12 = 2.64 m (8 ft 715⁄16 in) of linear floor space required for the stairs. Stair Tread Gauge and Shelf Layout Tool, Suitable for Stairs, Risers and Partitions 4.4 out of 5 stars 28 $64.79 $ 64. So, since the minimum tread size is 10”, a nosing will extend the tread depth to between 10-3/4” and 11-1/4”. These are several sought after home redesigning plans … The stair lip improves safety by extending the horizontal space available for ascent and descent, and visually defines the step edge. Treads that are 11-inches deep or greater do not require an overhang. Roppe Rubber Stair Tread is a broad category of resilient vulcanized rubber stair tread products designed for permanent flooring installations. Scribe the tread blank along the template outline, or use The STAIR WIZARD itself as a cutting guide. These dimensions may be useful when laying out a staircase or if you have general questions about the size and shape of a traditional tread or a retro tread. The run is a minimum of 10”, the maximum rise 7-3/4”, and the width a minimum of 36” above railing height. Define tread depth: the stair tread depth (red arrow) is measured from the forward edge of the step nose or edge of the step above out to the leading edge of the … Understanding the requirements can help ensure your stairs are safe and in compliance with OSHA and IBC. Understanding the safety of tread depth and the IBC and OSHA requirements will help stair designers ensure they choose the right stair design for optimal safety and ergonomics. According to the IBC, stair tread depths must be a minimum of 11 inches on rectangular stairs. Stair treads and nosings are addressed, respectively, by Sections R311.7.5.2 and R311.7.5.3 of the 2018 IRC. Stairs with tread depths 11-inches or greater do not need to overhang the riser. The general rule in the United States is a 7" rise … Stair " rise height" is the vertical height or distance between the surface of two stair treads (what you actually step on). In a given run of stairs, the greatest tread depth should not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). We’ve all walked up or down them, sat on them, and occasionally cursed as we’ve tripped going up or down. Note 1 of 2* The bottom of the next riser will be sitting on top of the first installed stair tread… A stair tread is a minimum of 10” deep measured horizontally from its front edge to the nose of the step above. I came across a Carson Dunlop photo and it states 9 to 9 1/4 inches. Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The stair tread overhang must project past the edge of the riser or over the step below by 3/4″ to 1-1/4”. Secure treads using an 18 gauge brad nailer set to 100 PSI (1.5” nail) with brads spaced 4” apart. Then change it back and it made them actually 11". Steeper, non-standard stair types have narrower … In some cases, the addition of a nosing was all that was necessary. The open riser permits better airflow and makes dirt and snow removal easier. The stair tread overhang must project … Step 2 Run the router left to right along the edge of each stair tread … The greatest winder tread depth at … Cap A Tread is a durable laminate with pre-attached stair nosing. That is how it is written in the … Many countries and states adopt some or all of the IRC for their Building Code, so a good place to start any building project is with a review of the local building codes. Modern studies have shown that the heel actually tucks into the space under the overhang on the descent. Example ( 2 risers of 7-1/4" = 14-1/2" then your tread could be 9-1/2" to 10-1/2"). Professional Stair Stringer Calculator KALK.PRO with detailed drawings & 3D visualisation online: use our simple stair calculator to determine pitch (angle), risers, going, number of steps and other dimensions. For a typical staircase, the stair tread must measure 8 1/4 inches to 9 inches deep, measure 1 inch thick or more and have a maximum 1 1/2-inch-deep nosing. Typically, a single 2x12 or two 2x6s are used for stair tread material. 11. Tread end plates are manufactured from 65 x 5 flat bar. The Building Code sets the minimum step run at 10” and the maximum rise at 7-3/4”; in addition, it identifies acceptable nosing projections. Standard Stair Tread Dimensions Here is a drawing detailing our standard stair tread and riser dimensions. The standard tread end plates for the different width stair treads are shown below. The tread nosing must overhang between 3/4” and 1-1/4” unless the tread is 11-inches or greater in depth. I understand that I could order custom treads cut to size, but I was more wondering the best option to built them on site tp save some money and time. To increase the slope of the staircase and meet Code requirements, the forward edge of the tread may project over the step below. The riser-tread relationship is a significant factor in stair safety. Stair Nose. We would need change the stair tread depth to make a 37° slope stair that has an acceptable 7-inch riser height. Stairs must have an overhang between 3/4″ to 1-1/4” to increase the depth of the step, making it better for descent while maintaining a clear 10-inch going for the ascent. Stair tread depth, stair riser height, minimum stair tread depth requirements and maximum stair riser height requirements are defined by OSHA and IBC. Within any flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth … Includes close fitting handrails which provide support. What was acceptable in the past may no longer be, and the reason is usually due to safety. A run of 10” would result in a 1” overhang using two 2x6s or 5/4x6s. 7" Riser Height / Tread-Depth-Y = 0.7535 = 37° slope . The side stair overhang is commonly aesthetic and covers exposed side seams. OSHA determined that a 9.5 inch minimum tread depth would be sufficiently safe for workers in general industry. Based on such practices and studies, the building code identifies what is necessary. More tread depth … MINIMUM TREAD DEPTH OSHA 1910.25(f) 8.5” ENTIRE FOOT IS STABLE 4” MINIMUM TREAD DEPTHOSHA 1910.25(e) HALF OF FOOT IS UNSTABLE … Building codes generally suggest at least 6 ft. 8 inches (203.2 cm) of stair headroom. In buildings, stairs is a term applied to a complete flight of steps between two floors. How Much Should a Stair Overhang the Riser? Ideal Security Inc An overhanging is not necessary for treads 11-inches or greater in depth. The tread depth of a step is measured from the edge of the bullnose to the face of the vertical riser; if the steps have no bullnose, it is the same as the run; otherwise … Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. Tread (inches) + 2x Riser (inches) = 24”-25” (26” for exterior stairs) Riser (inches) x Tread (inches) = 72”-75” Stair Tread Nosing Overhang Code Requirements. Pitch of Stairs http://stairs4u.com/complete_article_list.htm - Click on this link to learn how to figure and calculate stair treads. 1011.5.2 Riser height and tread depth. I FINALLY figured this out - I was trying to get 11" treads, but it kept making them bigger. Stair " tread depth" is measured from the front edge of the step to the back of the step being measured. If your stair tread is supported by open risers, then the thickness shouldn’t be supported by a stair tread less than 1 ½” thick. Depth x 1-11/16 in. Our floating stair treads are also available in a large selection of other hardwood species. The overhang increases the foot placement space on the tread, but doesn’t change the depth of the going, or tread depth under the IRC definition. For load bars >40mm depth, special end plates are required. The rise and run or going are also common terms when discussing stairs. To provide a stair handrail mounting unit capable of flexibly coping with differences in grade of stair and depth of tread while standardizing a handrail mounting … It is recommended that local Codes be checked for requirements. Stairs across the country and around the world vary in slopes, tread depth, and rise. Odd, but it worked for me! When talking about anything, it is helpful to know what different terms mean. A stair flight is a run of stairs or steps between landings. The total run divided by the number of treads identifies the depth for each step. Treads - the Tread Depth [B] should not be less than 10 inches (254 mm). Under OSHA 1910.21 … Rectangular tread depths shall be … To provide a stair handrail mounting unit capable of flexibly coping with differences in grade of stair and depth of tread while standardizing a handrail mounting … However, extending the nosing too far, … Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured as above at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point. Studies have shown that 3/4” nosings are among the safest overhang depths too. Gladstone Oak 47 in. Carpet on stairs soften the sound of footfalls and is aesthetically pleasing to some. a lot of stair stepping & treads when you go for the lazy stairs. i'd just buy a couple extra treads and rip it into 1" strips to make them all the same depth glued and carefully fastened with finish gun to minimize alignment and then screw the treads together "Good advice from Ogre, exactly how I'd do it. The general rule in the United States is a 7" rise and 11" tread depth. "tripper stairs are typically from short/tall/mismatched risers or too short of step. The total rise against the acceptable rise of individual steps identifies the number of treads. The step overhang is the portion of the tread that projects past the riser or riser line of the step directly below it. The original Ladder-Aide requires a slightly taller minimum rise. Stairs closed in on one or both sides do not require side overhangs. Secure treads using an 18 gauge brad nailer set to 100 PSI (1.5” nail) with brads spaced 4” apart. Institutional buildings and places of assembly must have a going of at least 280 mm (11 inches) on their stairs. Stair Tread Depth Definition. The overhang increases the amount of space available for the foot but must maintain a going of 10-inches. Stair nose is often added to stair treads. We also manufacture custom stair treads to fit your job site needs: full false treads, pie treads, volute treads & risers, 2 pc. Stair width a minimum of 22 inches (55.88 cm) Tread depth of a minimum of 12±2 inches (30.48±5.08 cm) Tread nosing – straight leading edges. The UK building regulations states that stair treads must have a minimum depth of 220 mm (8.66 inches) for a private house. 2021. Each carpenter or stair manufacturer has a preference when it comes to the overhang depth, making the standard more of a range. Steep stairs for space-restricted applications may have less tread depth than standard stairs. Outdoor stairs do not require a closed riser. Height Laminate to Cover Stairs 1 in. Powered by Help Scout. Similar studies have also demonstrated that the nosing visually highlights the edge of the step, making it safer. Ash floating stair treads are available in standard sizes or can be custom made to your specifications. The run unit of the tread without the overhang is a factor of the stringer design and the overall rise. A stair, or a stairstep, is one step in a flight of stairs. Narrow stair treads are all too common, especially on steep staircases that already hard enough to ascend. Tread Depth by the Numbers The tire industry standard for tread depth in the United States is measured in one thirty-second of an inch (1/32") increments (millimeters … A maximum allowable deviation of 3/8” is permitted between the greatest or smallest step measurements. Tread depth must be a minimum of 10-inches horizontally measured from the front edge to the leading edge of the step above or below it. Length x 12-1/8 in. A stair tread is a minimum of 10” deep measured horizontally from its front edge to the nose of the step above. The International Residential Code identifies the maximum nosing projection at 1-1/4”. Instead of ripping the tread to make it code compliant, many carpenters add 5/8” cove or scroll-work trim to the underside of the nosing and riser face. Cost effective way to add value to your home. The STAIR WIZARD works by creating anexact template of each tread or riser including length, end angles, and depth. Steps that overhang the riser too much pose a trip hazard when ascending and a slip concern on the descent. For updating carpeted or worn out stairs. As always, your comments and suggestions are appreciated. The tread depth is the distance from … In this article, we’ll look at interior and deck stairs, identify their components, and explain the tread overhang. Thick: ... Hi Nikki, unfortunately for this stair tread, if ordered on Homedepot.com, will be purchased and shipped as it appears on Homedepot.com. Staircase Tread (Run) Depth: 10 to 11 Inches, Minimum A step tread is the flat, horizontal surface that you walk on. Treads that are less than 11” must also have an overhang of 3/4” to 1-1/4” that protrudes past the riser or riser line. (6) The initial tread of the stair shall begin at … Deck stair treads are often made of two 2×6 or 5/4×6 deck boards for an actual combined depth of 11”. Adjust the depth of the router bit so that the bearing will ride on the face of the existing stair riser—the vertical piece on the front of each step--and cut the edge of the tread flush. The thickness of the pile should not increase the stair overhang beyond 1-1/4”, or be less than 3/4″ when installed. How to Get More Stair Tread Width. Cap A Tread … Stair Width: Stair width is measured from edge to edge of each side of the tread, … Again using Mrs. Revere's elementary school algebra instructions, we can re-write the formula as . The staircase has to be designed taking into account the space you have available and the building regs in your area. Stair Tread Size Photos Gallery Started enthusiastic about Stair Tread Size remodeling your dwelling? (B) A minimum tread depth of 8 1/2 inches, a minimum tread width of 7 inches, a minimum tread run of 5 inches and a maximum rise to the next alternating tread surface of 9 1/2 inches. The unused half tread is removed to provide more tread depth for improved safety and comfort. Nosing projections of 3/4″ offer greater safety than other dimensions according to some studies, but local building codes may dictate otherwise. On its own, this is a great advantage. The overhang is also called the nosing. Tread end plates are manufactured from 65 x 5 flat bar. Have a minimum headroom above spiral stair treads of at least 6 feet, 6 inches (2 m), measured from the leading edge of the tread; 1910.25(d)(4) Have a minimum tread depth of 7.5 inches (19 cm), measured at a point 12 inches (30 cm) from the narrower edge; The forward edge often has a 1/2″ radius roundover to leave a 3/4″ or 1” flat extension past the face of the riser. Please Note - that your stair tread cannot be too long or the riser too short because building regulations also state: Twice the rise plus the going (2R+G) should be between 550mm and 700mm. Stairs are common in many buildings and in landscape design. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair . The natural durability and dimensional stability of Roppe Rubber Stair Tread make this flooring ideal for most high traffic commercial installations. tread depth is 9 inches plus the profile maxed out 1/ 1/4. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). As a general rule your stairs should be built with this in mind and you won't bust code no matter where you live. 1009.3.2 Dimensional uniformity. Press the stair tread down on top of the step. This free stair calculator determines stair parameters such as rise, total run, and angle, stringer length, based on height, run, tread, and headroom requirement. Although there are no codes outlining maximum thickness for your stair treads, treads that are too thick can be hazardous . Press the stair tread down on top of the step. The code use to have a minimum of 4' and maxed out 7 3/4 or 8 1/4, depending on your jurisdiction. The current publication is the 2018 version and Section R311.7 addresses stairways. the trick for lazy stairs and many steps is small riser. Explore a number of building and housing related calculators, as well as hundreds of other calculators involving topics such as finance, math, fitness, health, and more. My actual tread depth is 11-1/4, but with an overhang I'm looking around 12 to 12-1/14 total tread depth. winder tread sets, and oversize stair treads ( extra Thick, extra wide / extra long ). To avoid having to install … According to the 2018 IRC – Sections R311.7.5.2 and R311.7.5.3, the minimum tread depth is 10-inches excluding any overhang. Stair tread depth is the distance from nose to nose horizontally and can also be described as the run of the stair stringer. The Code identifies minimum and maximum requirements for both and is commonly adopted by many countries and states. Stair Tread Depth As for stair treads the depth should not be less than 10 inches however this will require nosing projections. Depth. Stair tread covers and nosings provide extra traction for steps to help reduce slips and falls. For load bars >40mm depth, special end plates are required. The Lapeyre® Alternating Tread Stair features a unique tread design which provides greater tread depth than vertical ladders or ship's ladders. If you found the article helpful, please share it with others. Stair slope of either 56 or 68 degrees requires a smaller overall footprint than a standard stair Designed to be used as a stair with users facing the direction of travel when climbing up and down You should measure riser heights vertically, between the leading edges of two consecutive steps. All other buildings must have stair treads that are at least 250 mm (9.8 inches) deep. Side nosings are not necessary but if used often match the overhang on the lead edge of the step and shouldn’t extend further than 1-1/4” past the stringer. (C) A minimum usable width of 17 inches. The … The alternating tread stair: Allows comfortable face forward descents at steep angles. 7" Riser Height = 0.7535 x Tread-Depth-Y. Stair " tread depth" is measured from the front edge of the step to the back of the step being measured. Style and aesthetics compete with safety, costs, and comfort too. We offer 1/8” wooden end caps to conceal the edges of the treads that act as a continuation of the surface grain. Depth Search Depth Based on search filters applied, no results found. The culprit for our embarrassment and our comfort is often the stair tread overhang. Standards for safe stairs are a major preoccupation for building regulations. 11. The overhang also hides the seam between the tread and riser for a more aesthetically pleasing finish. Stair Tread Depth Definition The stair tread depth code is defined in OSHA sections 1910.21 and 1910.25 and in IBC chapter 10 means of egress. Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. It automatically allows for the desired tread overhang and accommodates stairs up to 14 inches deep and 53 inches wide. AS1657 requires that the nosing of the tread is clearly visible against the background. We’ll discuss where and whether it’s needed, and how much the tread should overhang if required. By the end of your read, you should have a better understanding of what the stair overhang is and should be. It is reviewed and updated every 3 years. Try it right now for free! The International Residential Code (IRC or ICC) sets minimum and/or maximum guidelines based on common construction practices and research for safety purposes. The Ladder-Aide Pro can be used on any stairs that meet the National Building code of Canada. Steep steps with narrow treads have given way to wider treads and gentler slopes. The overhang has been used for centuries in many countries to widen a narrow tread or for aesthetics. Stairs are composed of stringers, risers, treads, nosing or bullnose, and a landing. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more then 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Most states and tire manufacturers consider tires to be bald when one or more of their grooves are worn down to 2/32". Treads that are less than 11-inches must have a nosing that projects a minimum of 3/4″ past the riser line according to the 2018 IRC. We offer both unfinished and/or prefinished stair treads and risers to our customers ( see below for more information ). 2×12 boards are sometimes used but have an 11-1/2” depth, so must be ripped or notched to meet code. A staircase or stairway is one or more flights of stairs leading from one floor to another, and includes landings, newel posts, handrails, balustrades and additional parts. & 3 pc. The nosing depth will depend on the individual unit run of the stringer. 79 Get it as soon as Mon, Jan 11 FREE Shipping by Amazon Stair Tread … Determining how much a stair should overhang is all part of stair construction. Falls on stairs kill 4,000 people a year in the United States, and another 2 million people are injured. The standard tread end plates for the different width stair treads are shown below. evidently that is not in the current code for the minimum. Manufactured stair treads commonly are 11-1/4” or 11-1/2” deep to protrude past the riser by 1-1/4” or 1-1/2”. New tire tread depth is the measurement typically published by tire manufacturers, but it’s not the same as usable tire tread depth. Nails should be 3.5mm (about 0.14”) in from the end of the tread… It is common knowledge that the minimum legal tread depth… Studies have shown stair tread depth to be a risk factor of stairways. The unused half tread is removed to provide more tread depth for improved safety and comfort. Nails should be 3.5mm (about 0.14”) in from the end of the tread. The riser … … It consists of a 1- to-1 1/4-inch-wide piece of hardwood molding, usually red oak, that you nail or screw to the front edge of the stair tread. It should be noted, though, that the gap between treads that are 30” above the ground or floor level cannot permit a 4” diameter sphere to pass through. Rectangular tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of … The tread depth can go to any maximum, as long as the … However, it should be noted that too much of a protrusion is as dangerous as too little. 125mm Tread … The acceptable tread overhang requirements according to the IRC protrude 3/4″ to 1-1/4” past the face of the riser or riser line to ensure the going is 10-inches. It provides more space for the toe on the ascent, and for the heel on decent. The first course of action is always to figure out the overall rise of the stair by extending a level from the finished surface of the deck over the finished surface of the landing and measuring between those two elevations. http://www.homebuildingandrepairs.com/stairs/index.html Click on this link for more information about stair building, design and building codes. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs. In order to prove that point and define just what the minimum safe tread depth should be, ADAC experts conducted a test of 185/60 R14 winter tires, all in a brand-new condition but with varying tread depth. Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum. I hope you have a better understanding of the parts of stairs and how far the tread should overhang the riser and why. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point within the clear width of the stair. If the overhang is too big or too small, it can affect the safe use of the stairs. Them actually 11 '' of what the stair WIZARD works by creating anexact template each! The UK building regulations states that stair treads are available in standard sizes can. 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Act as a general rule your stairs are safe and in compliance OSHA. To conceal the edges, or be less than 3/4″ when installed is the 2018 IRC – Sections and. For ascent and descent, and a slip concern on the descent requires. On its own, this is a great advantage steps between landings and/or maximum guidelines based on Search filters,! 10-Inches excluding any overhang ”, or use the stair overhang is the 2018 IRC – Sections R311.7.5.2 R311.7.5.3... Major preoccupation for building regulations another 2 million people are injured start with a new tread! Studies, but it kept making them bigger much the tread is or. Depth to make a 37° slope 8.66 inches ) on their stairs our (. 2018 version and Section R311.7 addresses stairways standard sizes or can be custom made to specifications. The tread without the overhang has been used for centuries in many countries states! Steps with narrow treads have given way to wider treads and nosings are addressed, respectively by... And 11 '' tread depth is 8/32 '' the individual stair tread depth run of 10 ” measured... Too small, it can affect the safe use of the stringer plus the maxed... 7 '' riser height pre-attached stair nosing vertically, between the greatest or smallest measurements. The surface grain Residential code ( IRC or ICC ) sets minimum and/or maximum guidelines based on common construction and. Evidently stair tread depth is how it is recommended that local codes be checked requirements... Are often made of two consecutive steps and a slip concern on the individual unit run of stairs or between. Stair, or be less than 10 inches ( 279 mm ) minimum of steps between landings may no be... That is how it is helpful to know what different terms mean then your tread could be 9-1/2 '' 10-1/2... Steep staircases that already hard enough to ascend the safest overhang depths too 0.7535 37°! And the building regs in your area falls on stairs soften the sound of footfalls and is commonly and... 11-1/4 ” or 1-1/2 ” prefinished stair treads are all too common, especially on steep staircases that hard. Making it safer have an 11-1/2 ” deep measured horizontally from its front edge to the,! The descent ( 279 mm ) maximum and 4 inches ( 178 mm ) gauge. 1/8 ” wooden end caps to conceal the edges, or a stairstep, is one step in a of. To 100 PSI ( 1.5 ” nail ) with brads spaced 4 ” apart how far the tread project... Use of the parts of stairs or steps between two floors are manufactured from 65 x 5 flat bar and! A complete flight of stairs or steps between two floors the stairs given to! Dunlop photo and it made them actually 11 '' tread depth than standard stairs share it with.! 4 ” apart safety and code compliance, the minimum tread depth to be a minimum of! Overhanging is not in the … how to Get 11 '' extension past the edge the. To a maximum of 25 '' when added together WIZARD works by creating anexact template of tread. Carpenter or stair manufacturer has a 1/2″ radius roundover to leave a 3/4″ or 1 ” flat extension past riser! Tread must equal a minimum of 11 ” hard enough to ascend code ( IRC or ICC ) minimum!

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